An early Indian postcard showing the Taj Mahal of Agra in the background
During the middle decades of the 19th century in north India, the level of controversy between Christian and Muslim truth claims rose dramatically as Christian missionaries freely preached and published the Christian message in the midst of Muslim communities. The Muslim leader who led the "push back" was named Rahmat Allah Kairanwi. The Maulana's plan of attack, first in written form and then in a famous debate in Agra in 1854, forms an important part of the backdrop to the Izhar ul-Haqq. Two of the top scholars of this interesting history are Avril Ann Powell and Christine Schirrmacher. Each has written a book on the subject (reviewed below by Christian Troll), but each has also published shorter articles such as the ones below. Also included in the materials below is a report and evaluation of the controversy by a British civil servant working in India at the time, William Muir.